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Sunday 19 February 2017

Reading Comprehension & Autism: Where to Start?

Literacy is one of the most important skills we teach as SPED teachers.  Reading is fundamental for further learning in all other skill areas.  Yet, teaching literacy skills to students who have autism can be very challenging.  Because autism affects language, this can have a strong effect on reading comprehension. But this is not to say that reading and autism are mutually exclusive.

While language is often strongly affected by autism, this does not mean that reading and autism cannot work together. It only means that autism presents a unique set of challenges for a child, as well as for parents and teachers.  Children with autism, including nonverbal children, learn to read and comprehend better with programs that capitalize on their strengths.

Research has found that people with autism are relatively better at visual-spatial processing. This may explain why children with autism may struggle with verbal instruction or the decoding of written text, but thrive with instruction that incorporates visual accompaniment, particularly visuals that correspond seamlessly with the text with which they are engaging.  Structured reading programs like this Strength-Based Approach by Olewein and Broun, use visual accompaniments to help children with autism read and comprehend.

If a teacher is confused about a student's ability to comprehend, he or she should give the students many ways to demonstrate understanding.  Using the Strength-Based Approach has allowed me to build comprehension from the very beginning of instruction by pairing words with pictures and thereby giving the words meaning to my students with autism.  It is important to note that this approach uses ABA teaching methods, specifically, discrete trial training.  Once my students can select words within an array, I then make sure that they can pair the words with the pictures and objects they represent.  It is important to use a variety of materials to ensure generalization, so I use a variety of pictures and objects and also teach and test using the SMART Board and iPads.

Once students can match words with pictures and objects, we then move to teaching them to make and comprehend sentences.  We teach them to make sentences initially, by matching the words to pictures in an order that form a logical sentence.  When teaching students to read sentences, we start by reading it to them while having them point to each word in the sentence.  Then we have them read it aloud, if they are vocal, and silently if they are non-vocal.  To teach comprehension at this phase, we have students match words and sentences to pictures.

The second phase of teaching to sentence comprehension involves using sentences that contain an instruction that the student then performs after reading the sentence.  In this teaching phase, after reading the sentence, we prompt the student to complete the correct action.  Again, this is done using a variety of materials and modalities.

The next step in teaching reading comprehension uses short story passages.  In this phase of teaching, the student is learning how to answer questions about material they have read.  Again, the use of visual prompts is necessary at this step to assist the student in answering questions about the passage.  In this phase of teaching, it is important to use passages that contain words the student knows how to read and that only contain 2 or 3 sentences.  I also like to use materials that contain prompt fading as in the worksheets below.  By providing a selection of answers from which the student chooses the correct answer, it reduces the amount of effort it takes for the student to demonstrate understanding.  Remember, answering questions about passages they have read involves, decoding, recall and the communication skills necessary to convey information about what they have read, all of which are difficult for students with autism.

From this phase of teaching, you can continue to expand the length of the passages and the complexity of the questions.  I will be exploring these issues in an upcoming blog post next month.  In the meantime, I'd love to hear your thoughts on this approach and what strategies you use to teach reading comprehension in your classroom.  Leave me a comment below or shoot me an email!

Thanks for stopping by!



  1. Wow, this came onto my fb feed just as I'm trying to teach a little one to read. Going to check out this book. Thank you.

    1. Glad you found it helpful! Let me know if you have any questions!

  2. Good information , agree that teaching language is key for development of other skills - presuming competence is so important , especially for AAC communicators . New research in the US supports presuming competence for language capability , for non speaking children utilizing AAC.

  3. Hi, where can I locate the document that has the picture of the sentence: I see the ball.


  4. Reading Makes Your Child Smarter

    Reading is known to have numerous benefits. It increases your world knowledge, enhances your vocabulary, and works to improve your reading comprehension abilities.

    But did you know that reading can actually make you smarter?

    In fact, reading not only can make a child smarter, the very act of reading can even help to compensate for modest levels of cognitive ability in children by building their vocabulary and general knowledge! This is a finding reported by researchers Cunningham and Stanovich in a report titled "What Reading Does For the Mind".

    The simple fact here is that reading can make your child smarter, and that learning to read early on is directly linked to later success in life.

    1) Did you know that your child's vocabulary at 3 years old predicts his or her grade one reading success? [1]

    2) Did you know that vocabulary and reading ability in first grade strongly predicts grade 11 outcomes? [2]

    3) Did you know that your child's reading skill in grade 3 directly influences high school graduation? Studies have found that children who cannot read proficiently by grade 3 are four times more likely to leave school without a diploma than proficient readers! [3]

    >> Give your child the best possible head start. Teach your child to read today. Click here to learn how.

    But how do you teach a young child to read, and isn't that the job of the school and teachers?

    You can't be more wrong...

    With the right tools, knowledge, and techniques, teaching young children to read can be a simple and effective process. I'd like to introduce you to a fantastic reading program called Children Learning Reading, a super effective method for teaching children to read - even children as young as just 2 or 3 years old.

    The creators of this program have used it to teach their four children to read before age 3, and by reading, I mean real, phonetic reading.

    I can understand if you find that hard to believe... In fact, I had a difficult time believing it myself as well... that is, until I saw the videos they posted documenting the reading progress of the their children - not to mention all the videos other parents have sent in showcasing their children's reading progress after using the Children Learning Program. After learning more about their methods and techniques, it became clear how it's possible to teach young children to read effectively.

    It is truly within your ability to teach your child to read in a relatively short period of time spending just 10 to 15 minutes each day.

    >> Click here now to watch the videos and start teaching your child to read.

    1. Vocabulary Development and Instruction: A Prerequisite for School Learning
    Andrew Biemiller, University of Toronto

    2. Early reading acquisition and its relation to reading experience and ability 10 years later.
    Cunningham AE, Stanovich KE.

    3. Double Jeopardy How Third-Grade Reading Skills and Poverty Influence High School Graduation
    Donald J. Hernandez, Hunter College and the Graduate Center,


  5. This post is so helpful! My elder daughter is preparing for her law exam and she is always busy with her LSAT Sample Questions but my little one finds it difficult to study and read which is why I am extremely happy that you have shared this post here. I will be able to teach her as well.


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